You can find fiber in fruit, dried beans, peas, and other legumes, as well as in vegetables, cereals, grains, nuts, and seeds. It is important that these foods are unrefined because the outer layer of grain, which contains the most fiber, is removed during the refining process. Brown rice and whole-wheat bread, for example, contain more fiber than their refined cousins, white rice and white bread. When in doubt, apply this general rule of thumb: brown foods generally haven't been refined and therefore, contain more fiber.
There are two categories of fiber: soluble and insoluble. Soluble fibers like pectin, which can be found in fruits, legumes, vegetables, and nuts; carrageenan, which can be found in seaweed and algae; and mucilage, which can be found in plant seeds and secretions, all dissolve and water and become sticky. Insoluble fiber like cellulose and linin, both of which can be found in bran, whole grains, and vegetables, and the skins of fruits, does not dissolve.
Most people can get the right amount of fiber they need through a well-balanced diet. If fiber is increased, it should be done gradually. Increasing fiber too quickly can cause things like gas, bloating, and digestive problems. Too much fiber can also cause iron, zinc, and other mineral deficiencies. However, this is not likely to occur in a diet with 35 grams or less of daily dietary fiber.
You can learn more about the nutritional value of fiber by reading this Dietary Fiber article, published by the United States National Library of Medicine.
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Dietary Fiber Guide